Contrary to popular belief, business plans do not generate business financing. True, there are many kinds of financing options that require a business plan, but nobody invests in a business plan.
Investors need a business plan as a document that communicates ideas and information, but they invest in a company, in a product, and in people.
Small business financing myths:
Venture capital is a growing opportunity for funding businesses. Actually, venture capital financing is very rare. I'll explain more later, but assume that only a very few high-growth plans with high-power management teams are venture opportunities.
Bank loans are the most likely option for funding a new business. Actually, banks don't finance business start-ups. I'll have more on that later, too. Banks aren't supposed to invest depositors' money in new businesses.
Business plans sell investors. Actually, they don't well-written and convincing business plan (and pitch) can sell investors on your business idea, but you're also going to have convince those investors that you are worth investing in. When it comes to investment, it's as much about whether you're the right person to run your business as it is about the viability of your business idea.
I'm not saying you shouldn't have a business plan. You should. Your business plan is an essential piece of the funding puzzle, explaining exactly how much money you need, and where it's going to go, and how long it will take you to earn it back. Everyone you talk to is going to expect to see your business plan.
But, depending on what kind of business you have and what your market opportunities are, you should tailor your funding search and your approach. Don't waste your time looking for the wrong kind of financing.
Where to look for money
The process of looking for money must match the needs of the company. Where you look for money, and how you look for money, depends on your company and the kind of money you need. There is an enormous difference, for example, between a high-growth internet-related company looking for second-round venture funding and a local retail store looking to finance a second location.
In the following sections of this article, I'll talk more specifically about different types of investment and lending available, to help you get your business funded.
1. Venture capital
The business of venture capital is frequently misunderstood. Many start-up companies resent venture capital companies for failing to invest in new ventures or risky ventures. People talk about venture capitalists as sharks-because of their supposedly predatory business practices, or sheep-because they supposedly think like a flock, all wanting the same kinds of deals.
This is not the case. The venture capital business is just that-a business. The people we call venture capitalists are business people who are charged with investing other people money. They have a professional responsibility to reduce risk as much as possible. They should not take more risk than is absolutely necessary to produce the risk / return ratios that the sources of their capital ask of them.
Venture capital shouldn't be thought of as a source of funding for any but a very few exceptional startup businesses. Venture capital can't afford to invest in startups unless there is a rare combination of product opportunity, market opportunity, and proven management. A venture capital investment has to have a reasonable chance of producing a tenfold increase in business value within three years. It needs to focus on newer products and markets that can reasonably project increasing sales by huge multiples over a short period of time. It needs to work with proven managers who have dealt with successful start-ups in the past.
If you are a potential venture capital investment, you probably know it already. You have management team members who have been through that already. You can convince yourself and a room full of intelligent people, that your company can grow ten times over in three years.
If you have to ask whether your new company is a possible venture capital opportunity, it probably isn't. People in new growth industries, multimedia communications, biotechnology, or the far reaches of high-technology products, generally know about venture capital and venture capital opportunities.
If you are looking for names and addresses of venture capitalists, start with the internet.
The names and addresses of venture capitalists are also available in a couple of annual directories:
The Western Association of Venture Capitalists publishes an annual directory. This organization includes most of the California venture capitalists based in Menlo Park, CA, which is the headquarters of an amazing percentage of the nation's venture capital companies.
Pratt's Guide to Venture Capital Sources is an annual directory available online or in print format.
2. Sort of venture capital: Angels and others
Venture capital is not the only source of investment for start-up businesses or small businesses. Many companies are financed by smaller investors in what is called "private placement." For example, in some areas there are groups of potential investors who meet sometimes to hear proposals. There are also wealthy individuals who sometimes invest in new companies. In the lore of business start-ups, groups of investors are often referred to as "doctors and dentists," and individual investors are often called "angels." Many entrepreneurs turn to friends and family for investment.